Indians Military

1960-1996, 36 years of armed conflict Civil War Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas reversed many of the changes previously made by Arbenz, leading to the flag policy as anti-communist. He was assassinated in 1957, so that the Congress had to appoint interim presidents in succession to fill the power vacuum left. Among them was appointed General Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes, former Minister of Public Works Ubiquista dictatorship and political opponent of Arevalo and Arbenz. New york ‘ Formed in Guatemala Ydigoras activists who attempted the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion. The Green Berets (United States Army Special Forces) were installed in the country, and trained his army to become the most powerful anti-insurgent force in Central America. Organizations such as the Mano Blanca or the Secret Anti-Communist Army staged a violent activity that had its parallel in the bloody murders and kidnappings carried out by radicals commands ORPA (Organization of People in Arms).These leftist guerrillas were supported by Soviet and Cuban government. This period was characterized by excesses committed particularly by the army camp, funded mainly by the United States government and massacres which are still under investigation today. In response to his increasingly autocratic government, a group of junior military officers, among whom was Alexander Yon Sosa, rebelled, seeking to overthrow him in 1960. When they failed, several escaped and established close ties with Cuba. This group became the nucleus of the armed forces would fight the insurgency against the military governments for 36 years. Its four main leftist guerrilla groups conducted economic sabotage and bloody armed attacks on government installations and members of state security forces. These organizations combine to form the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (URNG) in 1982.The government of Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes in March 1963 would end abruptly at the hands of Colonel Enrique Peralta Azurdia 1970’S Shortly after democratic elections were held and was elected President Julio Cesar Mendez Montenegro in 1966. Although at first seemed to have gotten a transparent democracy, the military, which protects the government launched a vigorous campaign against the insurgency that broke largely guerrilla movement in the field and started the civil conflict which was to cause hundreds of thousands of victims, mostly by the Guatemalan military. Indigenous communities were most affected during the internal armed conflict. Colonel Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio (1970-1974) was the first in a long series of military presidents, intensifying the fascist overtones occasion to stop insurgent action under the rationale of anticommunism, were initiated from 1954 with U.S. intervention.Subsequently, Arana Osorio reached the rank of Major General. He was known for his cruelty as the Jackal. In 1972 a new guerrilla group infiltrated the country from Mexico. In 1974, General Kjell Lauguerud Garc a defeated General Efra n R os Montt, the Christian Democratic Party candidate, already in the late eighties and power would reach one of the most corrupt country has had. In 1978, General Romeo Lucas Garc a assumed power. In 1970 two new guerrilla groups sponsored by the Soviet Union and Fidel Castro, the EGP and ORPA intensified their insurgency against the military governments. In 1979, Jimmy Carter, banned any military aid to the Guatemalan Army because of systematic abuses against the population and the human rights.During 1980 the governments of 1978-1982 (Fernando Romeo Lucas Garc a), 1982-1983 (Efrain Rios Montt), 1983-1986 (Oscar Humberto Mejia Victores) caused a genocide with over 250,000 deaths, of which 45,000 remain missing. The Mayan genocide made one million five hundred thousand people were forcibly displaced. The war caused the displacement of 450,000 peasants who were forced to flee to Mexico. These displaced fled both the guerrillas and the military, as both sides failed to respect the neutrality of several communities and caused 667 and 443 massacres entire villages disappeared. Since the inauguration of General Lucas Garcia, Guatemala has entered a new cycle of repression. During 1979 and 1980 there were several massacres in the countryside, low media coverage.On 31 January 1980, the situation in Guatemala became a subject of worldwide attention for the assault on the Embassy of Spain and subsequent murder of 37 indigenous people from genocide survivors, the only surviving witness to what happened was killed the next day . The embassy, located on 6th street between 7th and 6th Avenue in the area 9, in Guatemala City, had been peacefully occupied by a group of Indians from various villages in the northeastern province of El Quich , an area where repression was especially hard during the previous months, supported by students from the University of San Carlos.